[MR] Wikipedia: Duke of Parma Alexander Farnese

Garth Groff via Atlantia atlantia at seahorse.atlantia.sca.org
Sun Aug 27 02:53:13 PDT 2017

Noble Friends,

On this date in 1592 Alexander Farnese, Duke of Parma and Governor of 
the Spanish Netherlands, died during a Spanish military campaign in 
Arras. Farnese is best known for his command of the army that would have 
invaded England with the support of the Spanish Armada in 1588. This 
didn't happen, thanks to the English naval victory at the Battle of 
Gravelines, which scattered the Armada, and a change in the weather 
which made crossing the English Channel impossible.

You can learn more about the Duke of Parma at 

For more about the Spanish Netherlands, including a gloss of how they 
came to be Spanish in the first place, try this link: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_Netherlands . Hint: note that the 
flag of the Spanish Netherlands shown on this page is similar to that of 
Burgundy before its 1477 collapse: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cross_of_Burgundy .

Yours Aye,

Mungo Napier, Laird of Mallard Lodge

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