[MR] Wikipedia: Treaty of York, 1237

Garth Groff via Atlantia atlantia at seahorse.atlantia.sca.org
Sun Sep 25 03:05:36 PDT 2016

Noble Friends,

On this date in 1237, Henry III of England and Alexander II of Scotland 
signed the Treaty of York. This often-overlooked agreement established 
what is still the border between Scotland and England, except for the 
unresolved control of the Debatable Lands, and the later conquests of 
Berwick-upon-Tweed which changed hands regularly: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Treaty_of_York .

What is often missed by historians, but is in the treaty, is that 
Alexander offered homage and fealty to Henry, usually taken by the 
English to mean that any King of Scots was a vassal of England. This 
certainly wasn't lost on Edward I, and was a justification of his 
invasion and subjugation of Scotland beginning in 1296. Of course, he 
was an arch-conquer monkey and didn't need any much justification for 
beating up on Scotland.

Berwick-upon-Tweed, an important border city, changed hands 12 times 
during the wars between Scotland and England. When Edward I captured 
Berwick during his conquest of Scotland, he had most of the inhabitants 
massacred, including women, children and clergymen, and resettled the 
town with Englishmen. In 1482, Richard Duke of Gloucester (later to be 
Richard III, the Car-Park King) took Berwick for the last time, and it 
has remained English ever since: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berwick-upon-Tweed .

The Debatable Lands were a 60-square mile section along the western end 
of the border which neither Scotland nor England could control: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Debatable_Lands . The area was ruled by 
various Anglo-Scottish chiefs who defied both governments. The Debatable 
Lands were one of several important lairs used by the infamous Border 
Reivers of the 16th century: 
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Border_Reivers . These included 
Armstrongs, Grahams, Elliots, Irvings, Bells, Nixons and others, many 
being the worst malefactors along the border. The region was more or 
less pacified after 1603 by James VI & I when he became king of both 

Yours Aye,

Lord Mungo Napier, Laird of Mallard Lodge

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